Consideration of the role of electrical forces in biological systems began with a move away from a purely chemical view of life and toward one which emphasized electron dynamics and the physical properties of biological tissue. Studies of the physiological role of the body’s intrinsic electrical signals then began, and they led to experiments on the therapeutic effects of artificial electrical signals. But during this forty-year developmental period, electricity became firmly established in society. There was a proliferation of transmitter towers, high-voltage lines, and the innumerable devices they serve, and it resulted in environmental levels of electromagnetic energy comparable to those being studied in the laboratory and applied clinically. I will speak about the side-effects of environmental electromagnetic energy; I will conclude that present exposure patterns are a significant public-health risk.
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