The thrust of the previous papers was that an understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between fields and cells was needed in order to make EMF-induced biological effects fully acceptable. The approach generally depicted was to hypothesize a model of interaction and pursue it experimentally or theoretically. I advocate starting from the opposite pole. I don’t say that the bottom-up approach is wrong, only that it is unsuccessful, and that it is time to consider other options, for example, the top-down approach that I will describe. My overall thesis is that proceeding from simple physical theory to explanations of complex biological reality is ineffective and ultimately futile, and that the better path is to begin with valid empirical observations and move toward understanding.