Robert O. Becker, M.D.

Curriculum Vitae

1. BECKER, R.O. Correlative clinico-pathologic studies in polymyelitis. Proc. NY Assoc. Public Health Lab. 39:32–34, 1959.
2. BECKER, R.O. The electrical response of human skeletal muscle to passive stretch. Surg. Forum 10:828–831, 1960.
3. BECKER, R.O. and Chamberlin, J.T. A modified coaxial electrode for electromyography. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 41:149–151, 1960.
4. BECKER, R.O. The electrical response of human skeletal muscle to passive stretch. J. Bone Joint Surg. 42-A:1091–1103, 1960.
5. BECKER, R.O. The bioelectric field pattern in the salamander and its simulation by electronic analog. IRE Trans. Med. Electronics ME-7:202–208, 1960.
6. BECKER, R.O. The bioelectric factors in amphibian limb regeneration. J. Bone Joint Surg. 43-A:643–656, 1961.
7. BECKER, R.O. Search for evidence of axial current flow in peripheral nerves of salamander. Science 134:101–102, 1961.
8. BECKER, R.O., Bachman, C.H. and Friedman, H. The direct current control system: a link between the environment and the organism. N.Y. State J. Med. 62:1169–1176, 1962.
9. BECKER, R.O. Some observations including the possibility of longitudinal charge-carrier flow in peripheral nerves. Biol. Prototypes Synth. Syst. 1:31–37, 1962.
10. Friedman, H., BECKER, R.O. and Bachman, C.H. Direct current potentials in hypnoanalgesia. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 7:193–197, 1962.
11. BECKER, R.O., Bachman, C.H. and Slaughter, W. The longitudinal direct current gradients of spinal nerves. Nature 196:675–676, 1962.
12. Bassett, C.A.L. and BECKER, R.O. Generation of electric potentials by bone in response to mechanical stress. Science 137:1063–1064, 1962.
13. BECKER, R.O. The biological effects of magnetic fields: a survey. Med. Electr. Biol. Eng. 1:293–303, 1963.
14. BECKER, R.O. Geomagnetic environment and its relationship to human biology. N.Y. State J. Med. 63:2215–2219, 1963.
15. BECKER, R.O. The direct current field: a primitive control and communication system related to growth processes. Proc. XVI Int. Congress Zool. 3:179, 1963.
16. BECKER, R.O. Electron paramagnetic resonance in non-irradiated bone. Nature 199:1304–1305, 1963.
17. Friedman, H., BECKER, R.O. and Bachman, C.H. Geomagnetic parameters and psychiatric hospital admissions. Nature 200:626–628, 1963.
18. BECKER, R.O. Biophysical basis of behavior. Hutchings J. 2:1–5, 1964.
19. BECKER, R.O., Bassett, C.A.L. and Bachman, C.H. The bioelectric factors controlling bone structure, in Bone Biodynamics, H.M. Frost, Editor. Little Brown and Co.: Boston, 1964.
20. Bachman, C.H., BECKER, R.O. and Friedman, H. The graded boundary carbon-saline electrode. Percept. Motor Skills 19:67–73, 1964.
21. Bassett, C.A.L., Pawluk, R.J. and BECKER, R.O. Effects of electric currents on bone in vivo. Nature 204:652–654, 1964.
22. Friedman, H., BECKER, R.O. and Bachman, C.H. Psychiatric ward behavior and geophysical parameters. Nature 205:1050–1055, 1965.
23. BECKER, R.O. and Brown, F.M. Photoelectric effects in human bone. Nature 206:1325–1328, 1965.
24. BECKER, R.O. Communications: a scientist’s responsibility. Res. & Educ. Services Newsletter 6(3):1–4, 1965. [PDF]
25. BECKER, R.O. Bioelectric effects in tissue. Clin. Orthop. 43:251–255, 1966.
26. BECKER, R.O. and Marino, A. A. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of bone and its major components. Nature 210(36):583–588, 1966. [PDF]
27. BECKER, R.O. The control system governing bone growth in response to mechanical stress. J. Ark. Med. Soc. 62:404–406, 1966.
28. BECKER, R.O. Medical communications need new approaches. U.S. Med. 2:1–28, 1966.
29. BECKER, R.O. The neural semiconduction control system and its interaction with applied electrical current and magnetic fields. Medica Foundation, 1966.
30. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Evidence for direct physical bonding between collagen fibres and apatite crystals in bone. Nature 213:697–698, 1967. [PDF]
31. Friedman, H., BECKER, R.O. and Bachman, C.H. Effect of magnetic fields on reaction time performance. Nature 213:949–950, 1967.
32. BECKER, R.O. The electrical control of growth processes. Med. Times 95:657–669, 1967.
33. Marino, A.A., BECKER, R.O. and Bachman, C.H. Dielectric determination of bound water of bone. Phys. Med. Biol. 12:367–378, 1967. [PDF]
34. BECKER, R.O. and Murray, D.G. A method for producing cellular dedifferentiation by means of very small electrical currents. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 29:606–615, 1967.
35. BECKER, R.O., Spadaro, J.A. and Berg, E.W. Trace elements of human bone. J. Bone Joint Surg. 50-A:326–334, 1968.
36. BECKER, R.O. The electrical control of growth processes. Resident Physician 14:69–78, 1968.
37. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Mechanically induced free radicals in bone. Nature 218:466–467, 1968. [PDF]
38. BECKER, R.O. and Marino, A.A. Role of water in some biophysical properties of skeletal tissues, in Biology of the Mouth. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1968, 135–143. [PDF]
39. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Correction concerning electron paramagnetic resonance in human bone mineral. Nature 221:661, 1969. [PDF]
40. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Temperature dependence of the EPR signal in tendon collagen. Nature 222:164–165, 1969. [PDF]
41. Ellis, E.H., Spadaro, J.A. and BECKER, R.O. Trace elements in tendon collagen. Clin. Orthop. 65:195–198, 1969.
42. BECKER, R.O. The effect of magnetic fields upon the central nervous system, in Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields. Plenum: New York, 1969.
43. Spadaro, J.A. Use of the direct current arc voltage in determining the carbonate content of bone. Appl. Spectrom. 23:125–128, 1969.
44. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Piezoelectric effect and growth control in bone. Nature 228:473, 1970. [PDF]
45. Spadaro, J.A., BECKER, R.O. and Bachman, C.H. The distribution of trace metal ions in bone and tendon. Calc. Tiss. Res. 6:49–54, 1970.
46. BECKER, R.O. and Murray, D.G. The electrical control system regulating fracture healing in amphbians. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 73:169–198, 1970.
47. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Evidence of epitaxy in the formation of collagen and apatite. Nature 226:652, 1970. [PDF]
48. Spadaro, J.A., BECKER, R.O. and Bachman, C.H. Size-specific metal complexing sites in native collagen. Nature 225:1134–1136, 1970.
49. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. The effect of electric current on rat tail tendon collagen in solution. Calc. Tiss. Res. 4:330–338, 1970. [PDF]
50. Marino, A.A., Soderholm, S.C. and BECKER, R.O. Origin of the piezoelectric effect in bone. Calc. Tiss. Res. 8:177–180, 1971. [PDF]
51. BECKER, R.O. Bioelectrochemistry–the outlook. Proc. Workshop in Bioelectrochemistry, 347–358, 1971.
52. BECKER, R.O. Augmentation of regenerative healing in man, a possible alternative to prosthetic implantation. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 83:255–262, 1972.
53. BECKER, R.O. Stimulation of partial limb regeneration in rats. Nature 235:109–111, 1972.
54. BECKER, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A. Electrical stimulation of partial limb regeneration in mammals. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 48:627–641, 1972.
55. Berg, E.W., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Dupuytren’s contracture: some associated biophysical abnormalities. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 83:144–148, 1972. [PDF]
56. Spadaro, J.A. and BECKER, R.O. Effects of thermal denaturation on metal binding and ultrastructure in collagen fibrils. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 263:585–592, 1972.
57. BECKER, R.O. Electromagnetic forces and life processes. Technol. Rev. (MIT) 75:32–38, 1972.
58. BECKER, R.O. The control of healing processes (guest editorial). Orthop. Rev. Feb., 1974.
59. BECKER, R.O., Chapin, S.E. and Sherry, R. Regeneration of the ventricular myocardium in amphibians. Nature 248:145–147, 1974.
60. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Piezoelectricity and autoinduction. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 100:247–249, 1974. [PDF]
61. Barranco, S.D., Spadaro, J.A., Berger, T.J. and BECKER, R.O. In vitro effect of weak direct current on Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 100:250–255, 1974.
62. BECKER, R.O. The significance of bioelectric potentials. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 1:187–199, 1974.
63. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Piezoelectricity in bone as a function of age. Calc. Tiss. Res. 14:327–331, 1974. [PDF]
64. Baker, B., BECKER, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A. A study of electrochemical enhancement of articular cartilage repair. Clin. Orthop. 102:251–267, 1974.
65. Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J., BECKER, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A. Effect of selected metals on marrow cells in culture. Chem. Biol. Interact. 9:217–223, 1974. [PDF]
66. BECKER, R.O. The basic biological data transmission and control system influenced by electrical forces. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 238:236–241, 1974.
67. Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J., Mitchell, J.T., Duhacek, B.A. and BECKER, R.O. Electric field effects in selected biologic systems. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 238:436–444, 1974. [PDF]
68. Baker, B., Spadaro, J.A., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Electrical stimulation of articular cartilage regeneration. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 238:491–499, 1974. [PDF]
69. Spadaro, J.A., Berger, T.J., Barranco, S.D., Chapin, S.E. and BECKER, R.O. Antibacterial effects of silver electrodes with weak direct current. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 6:637–642, 1974.
70. Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J., BECKER, R.O. and Hart, F.X. Electrostatic field induced changes in mouse serum proteins. Experientia 30(1274), 1974. [PDF]
71. BECKER, R.O., Cone, C.D., Jaffe, L.F., Parsegian, V.A., Pohl, H.A. and Weiss, L. Panel discussion: the role of electrical potential at the cellular level in growth and development. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 238:451–456, 1974.
72. BECKER, R.O. Boosting our healing potential, in World Book Encyclopedia. 1975, 40–55.
73. BECKER, R.O. The current status of electrical stimulated bone growth. ONA J. 2:35–36, 1975.
74. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Piezoelectricity in hydrated frozen bone and tendon. Nature 253:627–628, 1975. [PDF]
75. BECKER, R.O. and Pilla, A.A. Electrochemical mechanisms and the control of biological growth processes, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Bockris and Conway, Editors. Plenum: New York. p. 289–338, 1975.
76. Reichmanis, M., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Electrical correlates of acupuncture points. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 22:533–535, 1975. [PDF]
77. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Chapin, S.E. and BECKER, R.O. Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and mammalian cells. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 9:357–358, 1976.
78. Reichmanis, M., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. DC skin conductance variation at acupuncture loci. Am. J. Chin. Med. 4:69–72, 1976. [PDF]
79. BECKER, R.O., Reichmanis, M., Marino, A.A. and Spadaro, J.A. Electrophysiological correlates of acupuncture points and meridians. Psychoenerg. Syst. 1:105–112, 1976. [PDF]
80. Fuller, R.G., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Photoconductivity in bone and tendon. Biophys. J. 16:845–846, 1976. [PDF]
81. Spadaro, J.A. and BECKER, R.O. Some specific cellular effects of electrically injected silver and gold ions. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 3:49–57, 1976.
82. Marino, A.A., BECKER, R.O. and Ullrich, B. The effect of continuous exposure to low frequency electric fields on three generations of mice: a pilot study. Experientia 32:565, 1976. [PDF]
83. Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J., Austin, B.P. and BECKER, R.O. Evaluation of electrochemical information transfer system. 1. Effect of electric fields on living organisms. J. Electrochem. Soc. 123:1199&ndsah;1200, 1976.
84. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Bierman, R., Chapin, S.E. and BECKER, R.O. Antifungal properties of electrically generated metallic ions. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 10:856, 1976.
85. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Electrical osteogenesis: an analysis. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 123:280–282, 1977. [PDF]
86. BECKER, R.O., Spadaro, J.A. and Marino, A.A. Clinical experiences with low intensity direct current stimulation of bone growth. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 124:75–83, 1977. [PDF]
87. Reichmanis, M., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Laplace plane analysis of transient impedance between acupuncture points Li-4 and Li-12. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 24:402–405, 1977. [PDF]
88. BECKER, R.O. An application of direct current neural systems to psychic phenomena. Psychoenerg. Syst. 2:189–198, 1977.
89. BECKER, R.O. Microwave radiation. N.Y. State J. Med. 77:2172, 1977.
90. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Biological effects of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: a review. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 9:131–147, 1977. [PDF]
91. BECKER, R.O., Spadaro, J.A. and Marino, A.A. Evaluation of electrical techniques for stimulation of hard tissue growth. Bull. Prosth. Res. BPR 10-27:180–184, 1977. [PDF]
92. Reichmanis, M. and BECKER, R.O. Relief of experimentally-induced pain by stimulation at acupuncture loci: a review. Comp. Med. East West 3-4:281–288, 1977.
93. Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J., Austin, B.P., BECKER, R.O. and Hart, F.X. In vivo bioelectrochemical changes associated with exposure to ELF electric fields. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 9:433–441, 1977. [PDF]
94. Reichmanis, M., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Laplace plane analysis of impedance between acupuncture points H-3 and H-4. Comp. Med. East West 5:289–295, 1977. [PDF]
95. BECKER, R.O. and Marino, A.A. Electromagnetic pollution. The Sciences 18:14, 1978. [PDF]
96. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Hazard at a distance: effects of exposure to the electric and magnetic fields of high voltage transmission lines. Med. Res. Eng. 12:6–9, 1978. [PDF]
97. BECKER, R.O., Spadaro, J.A. and Marino, A.A. Evaluation of electrical techniques for stimulation of hard tissue growth. Bull. Prosth. Res. BPR 10-29:133–136, 1978. [PDF]
98. BECKER, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A. Treatment of orthopaedic infections with electrically generated silver ions. J. Bone Joint Surg. 60-A:871–881, 1978.
99. Mitchell, J.T., Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J. and BECKER, R.O. Effect of electrostatic fields on the chromosomes of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells exposed in vivo. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 10:79–85, 1978. [PDF]
100. Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. High-voltage lines: Hazard at a distance. Environment 20:6–15, 40, 1978. [PDF]
101. Reichmanis, M., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Laplace plane analysis of skin impedance: a preliminary investigation. J. Electrochem. Soc. 125:1765–1768, 1978. [PDF]
102. BECKER, R.O., Spadaro, J.A. and Marino, A.A. Evaluation of electrical techniques for stimulation of hard tissue growth. Bull. Prosth. Res. BPR 10-30:206–209, 1978.
103. BECKER, R.O. Electrical osteogenesis—pro and con. Calc. Tiss. Res. 26:93–97, 1978.
104. Reichmanis, M. and BECKER, R.O. Physiological effects of stimulation at acupuncture loci: a review. Comp. Med. East West 7:67–73, 1978.
105. Dueland, R., Hoffer, R.E., Saleen, W.A. and BECKER, R.O. Effects of low-voltage current on healing of thermal third degree wounds. Cornell Vet. 68:51–59, 1978.
106. BECKER, R.O. Brain pollution. Psychol. Today Feb.:124, 1979.
107. Marino, A.A., BECKER, R.O., Hart, F.X. and Anders Jr, F. Space osteoporosis: an electromagnetic hypothesis. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 50:409–410, 1979. [PDF]
108. Reichmanis, M., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Laplace plane analysis of impedance on the H meridian. Am. J. Chin. Med. 7:188–193, 1979. [PDF]
109. BECKER, R.O. The significance of electrically stimulated osteogenesis—more questions than answers. Clin. Orthop. 141:266–274, 1979.
110. Mazur, A., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Separating factual disputes from value disputes in controversies over technology. Tech. Soc. 1:229–237, 1979. [PDF]
111. BECKER, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A. Experience with low current silver electrode treatment of non-union, in Electrical Properties of Bone and Cartilage. Grune & Stratton. p. 631–638, 1979.
112. Spadaro, J.A., Webster, D.A. and BECKER, R.O. Silver polymethyl methacrylate antibacterial bone cement. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 143:266–270, 1979.
113. Spadaro, J.A. and BECKER, R.O. Function of implanted cathodes in electrode-induced bone growth. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 17:769–775, 1979.
114. Marino, A.A., Cullen, J.M., Reichmanis, M. and BECKER, R.O. Fracture healing in rats exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 145:239–244, 1979. [PDF]
115. Reichmanis, M., Perry, F.S., Marino, A.A. and BECKER, R.O. Relation between suicide and the electromagnetic field of overhead power lines. Physiol. Chem. Phys. 11:395–403, 1979. [PDF]
116. Marino, A.A., Cullen, J.M., Reichmanis, M. and BECKER, R.O. Power frequency electric fields and biological stress: a cause-and-effect relationship, in Biological Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Department of Energy: Washington, DC, 1979.
117. Marino, A.A., BECKER, R.O. and Ullrich, B. Kirlian photography: potential for use in diagnosis. Psychoenerg. Syst. 3:47–54, 1979. [PDF]
118. BECKER, R.O. Electromagnetic fields and life. Psychoenerg. Syst. 3:119–128, 1979.
119. Marino, A.A., Reichmanis, M., BECKER, R.O., Ullrich, B. and Cullen, J.M. Power frequency electric field induces biological changes in successive generations of mice. Experientia 36:309–311, 1980. [PDF]
120. Marino, A.A., Spadaro, J.A., Fukada, E., Kahn, L.D. and BECKER, R.O. Piezoelectricity in collagen films. Calc. Tiss. Int. 31:257–259, 1980. [PDF]
121. Marino, A.A., Cullen, J.M., Reichmanis, M., BECKER, R.O. and Hart, F.X. Sensitivity to change in electrical environment: a new bioelectric effect. Am. J. Physiol. 239:R424–R427, 1980. [PDF]
122. Webster, D.A., Spadaro, J.A., BECKER, R.O. and Kramer, S. Silver anode treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 161:105–114, 1981.
123. BECKER, R.O. and Esper, C. Electrostimulation and undetected malignant tumors. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 161:336–339, 1981.
124. Cullen, J.M. and BECKER, R.O. Neural-epidermal juxtaposition and its effect on limb regeneration in the rat, in Mechanisms of Growth Control, R.O. BECKER, Editor. Charles C. Thomas: Springfield, IL. p. 479–485, 1981.
125. Perry, F.S., Reichmanis, M., Marino, A. and BECKER, R. Environmental power-frequency magnetic fields and suicide. Health Phys. 41: 267–277, 1981. [PDF] Letters to Editor. [PDF]
126. BECKER, R.O. Electrical control systems and regenerative growth. J. Bioelectricity 1(2):239–264, 1982.
127. Cowlishaw, J., Spadaro, J.A. and BECKER, R.O. Inhibition of enzyme induction in E. coli by anodic silver. J. Bioelectricity 1(3):295–304, 1982.
128. BECKER, R.O. The role of the orthopaedic surgeon in the development of bioelectricity. J. Bioelectricity 2(1):77–81, 1983.
129. BECKER, R.O. Variables in research involving electromagnetic bioeffects. J. Bioelectricity 2(2&3):213–216, 1983.
130. BECKER, R.O. Electromagnetic controls over biological growth processes. J. Bioelectricity 3(1&2):105–118, 1984.
131. BECKER, R.O. A theory of the interaction between DC and ELF electromagnetic fields and living organisms. J. Bioelectricity 4(1):133–140, 1985.
132. BECKER, R.O. and BECKER, A.J. An analysis of the effectiveness of regulatory agency responses to a situation involving perceived health effects from microwave radiation. J. Bioelectricity 5(2):229–251, 1986.
133. BECKER, R.O. Electromagnetism and the revolution in medicine. Acupunct. Electrother. Res. 12:336–339, 1987.
134. BECKER, R.O. Comments on “Biological effects of power line fields.” J. Bioelectricity 7(1):103–118, 1988.
135. BECKER, R.O. Silver ions in the treatment of local infections. Met. Based Drugs. 6:311–314, 1999.
136. BECKER, R.O. Induced dedifferentiation: a possible alternative to embryonic stem cell transplants. NeuroRehabilitation 17:23–31, 2002.
137. BECKER, R.O. Exploring new horizons in electromedicine. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 10:17–18, 2004.
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